Yeasts commonly used by Nanaimo Winemakers
These notes come (often directly) from the various manufacturer’s websites. All yeasts are from Lallemand except Vin 13 (Anchor) and VL1 and VL3 (Laffort). Compiled September 2005.
71B: For nouveau wines
71B was isolated by the INRA (National Agricultural Research Institute) in Narbonne, France. 71B is known for making blush and semi-sweet wines with a ‘fruit salad’ character. Long-lived aromas are due to its production of esters and higher alcohols. Moderate fermentation speed, sensitive to competing yeasts, 14% alcohol tolerance, low nitrogen needs. 71B also softens high acid musts by partially metabolizing malic acid.
BM45: The Big Movement in winemaking
BM45 was isolated in the early 1990’s in collaboration with the Consorzio del Vino Brunello de Montalcino and the University of Siena. BM45 is a relatively slow starter and is well suited for long maceration programs. It has high nitrogen requirements and can produce H2S if nutrient starved. Especially when used in whites, BM45 benefits greatly when rehydrated with Go-Ferm. BM45 produces high levels of polysaccharides resulting in wines with great mouthfeel and improved color stability. BM45 is used on red varieties to contribute jam, spice and earthy elements. It also is used to minimize vegetal characteristics. Some winemakers use BM45 on Chardonnay as a blending component to increase mouthfeel. Moderate fermentation speed, active “killer” competitor, tolerant to 16% alcohol.
CY3079: For classic white Burgundy
CY3079 was selected by the BIVB with the objective of finding a strain that would complement typical white Burgundy styles. CY3079 is a steady, slow fermenter even at cold temperatures (13°C). This strain benefits from using Go-Ferm and Fermaid K. When properly fed, CY3079 has good alcohol tolerance (up to 15%) and is a low producer of VA and H2S. It is recommended for barrel fermented Chardonnay and sur lie aging. Chardonnays produced with CY3079 have rich, full mouthfeel and are characterized by aromas of fresh butter, almond, honey, white flowers and pineapple. Moderate fermentation speed, sensitive to other yeasts; high nitrogen needs, tolerant to 15% alcohol. Not for high temperature ferments: range 18-28ºC.
DV10: The best Champagne isolate
DV10 was selected by the SOEC in the Champagne region and is approved by the CIVC in Epernay. DV10 has strong fermentation kinetics over a wide temperature range and relatively low nitrogen demands. DV10 is famous for its ability to ferment under stressful conditions of low pH, high total SO2 and low temperature. Low foaming and low VA production characterize it. DV10 is considered a clean fermenter that respects varietal character and avoids bitter sensory contributions of other one-dimensional ‘workhorse’ strains such as Prise de Mousse. It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus. Ferments 10-35ºC and to 18% alcohol; fast fermenter and a killer yeast.
EC-1118 (Prise de Mousse): THE original Prise de Mousse
EC1118 is the original and is good for barrel fermentations. It ferments well at low temperatures and flocculates well with very compact lees. EC-1118 produces a lot of SO2 (up to 30 ppm) and as a result can inhibit malolactic fermentation. It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus. Ferments 10-30ºC and to 18% alcohol; fast fermenter and a killer yeast. Low nitrogen requirements.
ICV-D254: For mouthfeel in Mediterranean style reds
ICV-D254 was selected by the ICV from Syrah fermentations in the Rhône Valley. When the fermentation is aerated and the temperature is maintained below 28°C, ICV-D254 has an alcohol tolerance of up to 16%. Especially when used for white fermentations, ICV-D254 benefits from rehydration with Go-Ferm. In red wines, ICV-D254 promises high fore-mouth volume, big mid-palate mouthfeel and intense fruit concentration. Smooth tannins and a mildly spicy finish characterize it. Red wines made with ICV-D254 may be blended with ICV-D80 to create more concentrated, fuller bodied wines. As a complement to CY3079, winemakers in North American use ICV-D254 for fermenting Chardonnay with nutty aromas and creamy mouthfeel. Ferments 12-28ºC; moderate speed; neural competitor; 16% alcohol; medium nitrogen needs.
ICV-D47: For complex whites with citrus and floral notes
ICV-D47 is a Côtes du Rhône isolate for the production of full-bodied barrel fermented Chardonnay and other white varietals. Although ICV-D47 has an optimum temperature range of 18° to 28°C, the best results are obtained at around 20°C. When left on lees, ripe spicy aromas with tropical and citrus notes are developed. ICV-D47 is a high polysaccharide producer known for its accentuated fruit and great volume. Moderate fermentation speed; active (killer”) competitor; 14% alcohol; low nitrogen needs.
ICV-D80: To enhance tannin structure
ICV-D80 was isolated by Dominique Delteil of the ICV in 1992 from the Côte Rôtie area of the Rhône Valley for its ability to ferment musts high in sugar and polyphenols. With proper nutrition (Go-Ferm and Fermaid K), aeration and fermentation temperatures below 28°C, ICV-D80 will ferment up to 16% alcohol. ICV-D80 brings high fore-mouth volume, big mid-palate mouthfeel and intense fine grain tannin to reds. It is one of the best strains for contributing big tannin volume and is characterized by ripe fruit, smoke and a licorice finish. When blended with wines fermented with ICV-D254 or Syrah, wines fermented with ICV-D80 bring more tannin intensity to the blend. Moderate fermentation speed; active competitor; 16% alcohol; medium nitrogen needs.
ICV-K1 (V1116): The secure choice for light, fresh, crisp whites
ICV-K1 tends to express freshness of white grape varieties. Natural fresh fruit aromas are retained for a longer time when compared with wines fermented with standard yeast strains (such as Prise de Mousse). When fermented at low temperatures (below 16°C) and with the right addition of nutrients (Go-Ferm and Fermaid K), ICV-K1 is one of the more flowery ester producers (isoamyl acetate, hexyl acetate, phenyl ethyl acetate). These esters bring fresh floral aromas to neutral varieties or high yield grapes. Among the high ester producers, ICV-K1 is the most resistant to difficult fermentation conditions such as low turbidity, low temperature, and low fatty acid content. ICV-K1 can withstand a wide range of fermentation temperatures (10° to 42°C) and tolerate alcohol up to 18%. ICV-K1 is recommended for the fermentation of ice wines. It can also be used for rosé or basic red wines. Fast fermenter; active competitor.
R2: For expression of Sauvignon blanc aromas
R2 was isolated in the Sauternes region of Bordeaux by Brian Croser of South Australia. It has excellent cold temperature properties and will ferment as low as 5°C. If it does not get proper nutrients it can tend to produce VA. For this reason, rehydration with Go-Ferm and the addition of Fermaid K is recommended. R2 helps produce intense direct fruit style whites by liberation of fruity and floral aroma precursors. It is recommended for aromatic white varieties such as Sauvignon blanc, Riesling and Gewürztraminer. It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus. Ferments 10-30ºC (according to the chart); moderate speed; active competitor; 16% alcohol; HIGH nitrogen needs.
RC212: For Pinot noir with color and structure
RC212 was selected from fermentations in Burgundy by the BIVB. It requires high nutrient additions to avoid the potential development of H2S and demonstrates best results when rehydrated with Go-Ferm. RC212 consistently produces Pinot noirs with good structure, ripe berry, bright fruit and spicy characteristics. Wines made with RC212 can be blended with wines made with RA17 to achieve more complexity and finesse. Ferments 20-30ºC; moderate speed; neutral competitor; 16% alcohol; HIGH nitrogen needs.
Vin 13: Anchor’s choice for aromatic whites
Vin 13 is a product of the yeast selection program of the Department of Microbiology and Institute for Wine Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. It is ideal for the production of aromatic white wines for early release on the market as well as wines destined for ageing. It enhances tropical fruit and floral flavors and is recommended for vinifying Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Chenin blanc, Colombard, Riesling, Semillon, Gewürztraminer, Muscadelle, Viognier, and others. Characteristics: Short lag phase; ferments sugar fully even at low temperature; alcohol tolerance 16.5%; resistance to 50 ppm free SO2; optimum fermentation range 10-15ºC (new world style) or 15-20ºC (European style); non foaming; average glycerol production; very low acetic acid production; does not produce SO2; low nitrogen requirements at low temperatures; POF(-); competitive killer; inhibits MLF.
Zymaflore VL1: Laffort’s choice for premium dry whites
This yeast strain, specifically selected for making dry white wines, has enzyme properties particularly suited to hydrolyzing terpenic aroma precursors. Zymaflore VL1 enables each grape variety and “terroir” to express its full character. Its POF(-) character produces wines with great finesse and very clean aromas [i.e., it does not have an enzyme that produces the vinyl phenols in white wines as many yeasts do—these vinyl phenols are responsible for undesirable “medicinal” flavors.] This POF(-) character also makes Zymaflore VL1 especially suitable for fermenting botrytized juices. Use for white wines from any grape-growing area. Good results even if the juice is only lightly clarified. Its specific enzyme activity brings out the full character of aromatic grape varieties and their “terroir”. Also use for rosé wines from any grape-growing area. Produces highly aromatic wines with good structure.
Zymaflore VL3: For Sauvignon blanc
VL3 was selected following fundamental research identifying the molecules responsible for Sauvignon Blanc aroma. VL3 has a special capability for revealing Sauvignon Blanc varietal aroma, by reactions involving the odorless precursors present in the must. Zymaflore VL3 was selected following research carried out at the Bordeaux Faculty of Enology on the development of aroma precursors, particularly S-cysteine conjugates. Zymaflore VL3 has been selected for its capacity to reveal Sauvignon Blanc varietal aromas (mercaptopentanone, mercaptohexanol, etc.). It converts odorless aroma precursors in the must during alcoholic fermentation, while preserving all the individual character of the “terroir.” For optimum use, it is advisable to adjust turbidity to between 50 and 200 NTU and available nitrogen to 160-180 mg/L, while maintaining fermentation temperatures around 18 – 21°C. In 2004 several Club members found this yeast had a very long lag phase, but this was in very clear juice (note the instructions about turbidity).