February’s Nanaimo Winemakers club zoom meeting featured a presentation by our own Ian Baker who shared valuable preparation reminders to improve success in bottling your wine.
We are pleased to include Ian’s notes from his presentation and a link to a PDF file if you choose to download.
FINISHING WHITE & ROSE’ WINES IN PREPARATION FOR BOTTLING
1. WINES ARE READY FOR FINISHING
- Alcoholic fermentation complete.
- Blending for fine tuning of aroma, fruit, mouthfeel, or acid balance should be completed 1 – 2 months prior to bottling and before Cold Stabilization.
- Fining, Protein and Cold Stabilization after Alcoholic Fermentation
2. PROTEIN STABILITY
- “Heat Haze” can occur in wines that are not protein stable.
- Typically occurs when the wine gets warm.
- Protein stability achieved by the addition of Bentonite early in the fining process.
- 20 – 0.75 g/liter.
- Test for protein stability via Hot Water Bath for 30 minutes at 80 degrees Celsius.
- Check Wines for clarity 24 hours after Hot Water
- Stubborn unstable wines can be treated with a repeat of Bentonite addition.
- Additional Bentonite settles very quickly.
3 TARTRATE STABILITY – “Cold Stabilization”
- Tartrate instability evident by the precipitation of tartrate’s, “Wine Diamonds” in the carboy or bottle.
- Achieved by chilling the wine to around 0 degrees Celsius for 2 weeks or more.
- Will precipitate and reduce some Tartaric Acid.
- The amount of Tartaric Acid precipitated varies by pH and Wine.
- Tartrate Stabilization can be facilitated by the “Contact Method” with the addition of Potassium Bitartrate (Cream of Tartar).
- 4g Potassium Bitartrate/liter of chilled Wine with some agitation and a contact time of 1.5 to 2 hours works efficiently.
- Crystalflash by AEB – Speeds up Tartrate Stabilization to 3-5 days.
- Caution: Gases are absorbed more easily at low temperatures increasing the risk of oxidation.
- CELSTAB by Laffort – an alternative method for Tartrate
- Wine must be Protein Stable.
- CELSTAB forms a haze in Wine treated with Lysozyme.
- Add 1ml CELSTAB/ liter of Wine 24 hours before bottling.
- Cost = $0.72 per 23 liter carboy.
The relationship between Titratable Acidity (TA)and Residual Sugar (RS)
- The key to maximizing the potential of any wine.
- Often starts early in Winemaking with Blending and various methods of Acid adjustments.
- TA can still remain high prior to bottling.
- Wine may benefit by Balancing with some RS.
The Stigma on RS in Wine! Examples of RS in Wine:
- TANTALUS OLD VINES RIESLING 2018
- 93 POINTS – Chris Waters, Globe and Mail
- 93 POINTS – David Lawrason, Wine Align.com
- 93 POINTS – Treve Ring, Gismondi On Wine
- 92 POINTS – Anthony Gismondi, The Vancouver Sun
- Varietal: 100% Riesling
- Alcohol: 12.6%
- RS: 11.41 g/L
- pH: 2.77
- Total Acidity: 10.7 g/L
2. NK’MIP CELLARS QWAM QWMT RIESLING
- Varietal: 100% Riesling
- Alcohol: 12.38%
- RS: 7.5 g/L
- pH: 2.87
- Total Acidity: 8.83 g/L
3. NK’MIP CELLARS DREAMCATCHER
- Varietal: 35% Riesling, 20% Ehrenfelser, 18% Sauvignon Blanc, 18% Pinot Blanc, 8% Chard & 1% Semillon
- Alcohol: 13%
- RS: 13.0 g/L
- pH: 2.89
- Total Acidity: 8.14 g/L
4. NK’MIP CELLARS QWAM QWMT CHARDONNAY
- Varietal: 100% Chardonnay
- Alcohol: 13%
- RS: 3.12 g/L
- pH: 3.41
- Total Acidity: 6.56 g/L
Analysis of Wine Tasted at Zoom Meeting
5. GEHRINGER BROS. ESTATE WINERY PRIVATE RESERVE DRY RIESLING 2020
- Alcohol 13.0%
- Total Acidity 6.5g/L
- Residual Sugar 7.6g/L
- pH 2.94
- 2020 Vintage:
- BEST OF CLASS/GOLD – Cascadia Wine Comp
- GOLD – All Canadian Wine Comp
5. BENCH TRIALS – Balancing with RS
- Encourage Spouse, Partner(s), Significant Others etc. to Participate.
- Dissolve 5 grams of Sugar into 500 mls of the Trial Wine = 10 g/liter RS.
- Measure out 300 mls of the Trial Wine unadjusted = 0 g/l RS.
- With a non-permanent marker label 5 wine glasses.
#1 – Control
#2 – 2.5 g/l RS
#3 – 5.0 g/l RS
#4 – 7.5 g/l RS
#5 – 10.0 g/l RS
Using a 100 ml graduated cylinder measure into each glass:
#1 – Control 100 mls of unadjusted Trial Wine
#2 – 2.5 g/l RS 75 mls unadjusted Trial Wine + 25 mls 10 g/l RS Wine
#3 – 5.0 g/l RS 50 mls unadjusted Trial Wine + 50 mls 10 g/l RS Wine
#4 – 7.5 g/l RS 25 mls unadjusted Trial Wine + 75 mls 10 g/l RS Wine
#5 – 10.0 g/l RS 100 mls 10 g/l RS Wine
- Taste through Wines to determine the preferred RS Range.
- Repeat Trials within the RS Range to fine tune preference.
- Bench Trial with previous Vintages.
- Record Acid/RS for comparison with Future Vintages.
- Option: Label glasses Alphabetically to disguise RS Levels.
- Filtration recommended to achieve Brilliant lasting Clear Wine.
- Unfiltered Wines often will produce some sediment in the bottle after a period of time.
- 5 micron “sterile” filter pad will render Brilliant Clear Wine.
- 45 micron Absolute Filtration provides true Sterile Filtration.
- 45 micron Nominal cartridge Filtration – next level for the amateur winemaker.
7. PROTECTING/PRESERVING WINE
- Measure and adjust Free SO2 prior to bottling.
- The amount of Free SO2 needed to protect a Wine is pH dependent.
|Free SO2||Free SO2|
|Minimum effective protection (0.8 mg/L molecular SO2)||Maximum protection before sensing (2.0 mg/L molecular SO2)|
- Wine is protected from re fermentation in the bottle???
READY TO BOTTLE!